This book is a study of the future of international law as well as the future of the United Nations. It is the first study ever bringing together the laws, policies and practices of the UN for the protection of the earth, the oceans, outer space, human rights, victims of armed conflicts and of humanitarian emergencies, the poor, the vulnerable and the disadvantaged world-wide. It reviews unprecedented dangers and challenges facing humanity such as climate change and weapons of mass destruction, and argues that the international law of the future must become an international law of security and of protection. It submits that the concept of international security in the UN Charter can no longer be restricted to situations of armed conflict but must be given its natural meaning: whatever threatens the security of humanity. It calls for the Security Council to perform its role as the guardian of the security of humankind and sees a leadership role for the UN Secretary-General in analysing and presenting challenges of international security and protection to the Security Council for its attention.
In this challenging and highly original book, the author tackles the dynamic relationships between physical nature and societies over time. It is argued that within each eco-cultural habitat, the relationship between physical nature and society is mediated by specific entanglements between technologies, institutions, and cultural values. These habitat-specific entanglements are neither ecologically nor culturally predetermined, but result from mutual adaptation based on variation (trial and error) and selection. It is shown how a variety of eco-cultural habitats evolves from this coevolutionary process. The book explores how these varieties come into being and how their specific characteristics affect the capacity to cope with environmental or social problems such as flooding or unemployment.
There are two case studies illustrating the potential of a coevolutionary understanding of the society-nature nexus. In the first, rural and urban settlement structures are conceptualized as distinct paths of eco-cultural adaptation. It is shown that each of these paths is characterized by predictable spatial correspondences between dwelling technologies, modes of social reproduction, cultural preferences, and related patterns in energy consumption (i.e. social metabolism). The second case study deals with flood protection in liberal and coordinated eco, welfare, and production regimes, drawing on lessons from the Netherlands and Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. As a contribution to theory in environmental sociology, the coevolutionary perspective developed provides deeper insights into the intricate interplay between physical and social nature.
This study explores the current state of knowledge with respect to the effects of wet weather flows from urban areas on the physical character of aquatic habitat. It identifies knowledge gaps with respect to our ability to define the cause-effect relationships, examines the comprehensiveness of the data used in support of the published literature in the subject area, and makes a qualitative determination of the usefulness of those data for further analysis to increase our knowledge in the subject area. Finally, it recommends further research studies that will increase our knowledge in the subject area, with emphasis on pilot-scale projects that can be used to develop practical protocols for preventing or mitigating the effects. Major findings and conclusions are: 1) we lack a solid conceptual framework for predicting the impact of large-scale watershed modifications and wet weather flows on ecological processes that influence stream communities; 2) there is a need for longer-term monitoring; 3) there is no widely accepted system for quantifying geomorphic instability and degradation of physical habitat; 4) there is a need for process-based stream classification; 5) specific links between urbanization characteristics and stream degradation are lacking; 6) there is a need for urban best management practice (BMP) assessment standards; and 7) developing a multi-scale understanding of habitat potential in human-dominated watersheds is needed. The report recommends a research program that first and foremost, includes comprehensive, long-term monitoring augmented with mathematical modeling of the linkages between development style/drainage system design, flow regime, and multi-scale changes in physical habitat and biotic response. Improved diagnosis and predictive understanding of future change require multifaceted, multiscale, and multidisciplinary studies based on a firm understanding of the history and processes operating in a drainage basin. Detailed long-term analyses of the influence of hydrologic regime and channel morphology on differences between communities in recruitment, immigration/emigration, mortality, and age structure are also needed. Finally, future research should directly examine tradeoffs between: 1) flood mitigation versus channel roughness, habitat heterogeneity, debris inputs, and riparian protection; 2) chemical water quality improvement through extended detention versus geomorphically-based flow regime controls; and, 3) rehabilitation of aquatic habitat using static features versus allowing the potential for dynamic adjustments in channel form and habitat structure. It is extremely important that the research be pragmatic, and focus on developing pilot/demonstration studies that will lead to design guidance that municipalities can use to design new systems, or improve existing systems, that will protect not only the safety and welfare of the citizenry that it serves, but also the aquatic ecosystems in the streams that receive the wet weather discharges from these urbanized sites.
Traditional measures of economic activity, such as GDP, take no account of damage done to the stock of natural capital by environmental change nor the loss of welfare that economic activity causes through increased pollution. This book predominantly addresses the second question and develops and expands previous research by the authors (Markandya and Pavan, 1999). Using spatially desegregated data on measures of pollution to derive economic damage estimates, the main purpose of the book is to gauge the environmental damage sustained as a result of economic activities and to offer an insight about how the information generated can be used in conjunction with conventional economic accounts. The first few chapters review recent developments in both green accounting and pathway analysis. The book goes on to evaluate the progress made in estimating dose response functions and valuing environmental damages. The authors discuss the methodology used for the estimation of damages caused by ambient air pollution and the cost of defensive expenditures. They also present the results of the analysis and draw important policy conclusions for environmental accounting, particularly in the EU. This book will be essential reading for environmental economists, particularly those interested in issues of environmental accounting.
For your business to become Sustainably Viable, I will show you the interdependent connections between your environmental and social footprints, and how their combined impact across all processes of your business create largely hidden waste, risk and cost to your balance sheet. In balance, here too are the opportunities to expose fresh opportunities and learn how to capture, create and deliver more value, to serve customers better and make better, more informed decisions on spend. Additionally you will learn how to you create relevant and material marketing campaigns based on material, contextual and relevant reports. The reports will become your user manual to over come your barriers to growth: exploit outstanding competitive advantage to rise above the mediocre that claims to be me-to.
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