This book is a study of the future of international law as well as the future of the United Nations. It is the first study ever bringing together the laws, policies and practices of the UN for the protection of the earth, the oceans, outer space, human rights, victims of armed conflicts and of humanitarian emergencies, the poor, the vulnerable and the disadvantaged world-wide. It reviews unprecedented dangers and challenges facing humanity such as climate change and weapons of mass destruction, and argues that the international law of the future must become an international law of security and of protection. It submits that the concept of international security in the UN Charter can no longer be restricted to situations of armed conflict but must be given its natural meaning: whatever threatens the security of humanity. It calls for the Security Council to perform its role as the guardian of the security of humankind and sees a leadership role for the UN Secretary-General in analysing and presenting challenges of international security and protection to the Security Council for its attention.
Since the 'sixties anxiety about the future of mankind has led to a number of major publications on the world's vital problems and the relationship be- tween them, the best known being the reports to the Club of Rome. This study of the problems of providing living accommodation for a rapid- ly growing world population, taking into account the limits that must be set to this growth, was started in 1973 at the Academy of Architecture and Erasmus University, Rotterdam, and testifies to the same anxiety. Inhabiting the Earth as a Finite World is the impressive result of a study of the consequences of meeting the just demand for good accommodation for all the earth's in- habitants, worked out with the aid of a world model and a number of case studies. The value of models, especially very complex ones, is at present debatable. Nevertheless, they can often cast light on complex situations. The simplified form of the real situation, which every model in fact is, allows certain impli- cations of decisions to be discerned and taken into account in planning. The comparison of the results of the study with the design process is a clear example of this.
This study explores the current state of knowledge with respect to the effects of wet weather flows from urban areas on the physical character of aquatic habitat. It identifies knowledge gaps with respect to our ability to define the cause-effect relationships, examines the comprehensiveness of the data used in support of the published literature in the subject area, and makes a qualitative determination of the usefulness of those data for further analysis to increase our knowledge in the subject area. Finally, it recommends further research studies that will increase our knowledge in the subject area, with emphasis on pilot-scale projects that can be used to develop practical protocols for preventing or mitigating the effects. Major findings and conclusions are: 1) we lack a solid conceptual framework for predicting the impact of large-scale watershed modifications and wet weather flows on ecological processes that influence stream communities; 2) there is a need for longer-term monitoring; 3) there is no widely accepted system for quantifying geomorphic instability and degradation of physical habitat; 4) there is a need for process-based stream classification; 5) specific links between urbanization characteristics and stream degradation are lacking; 6) there is a need for urban best management practice (BMP) assessment standards; and 7) developing a multi-scale understanding of habitat potential in human-dominated watersheds is needed. The report recommends a research program that first and foremost, includes comprehensive, long-term monitoring augmented with mathematical modeling of the linkages between development style/drainage system design, flow regime, and multi-scale changes in physical habitat and biotic response. Improved diagnosis and predictive understanding of future change require multifaceted, multiscale, and multidisciplinary studies based on a firm understanding of the history and processes operating in a drainage basin. Detailed long-term analyses of the influence of hydrologic regime and channel morphology on differences between communities in recruitment, immigration/emigration, mortality, and age structure are also needed. Finally, future research should directly examine tradeoffs between: 1) flood mitigation versus channel roughness, habitat heterogeneity, debris inputs, and riparian protection; 2) chemical water quality improvement through extended detention versus geomorphically-based flow regime controls; and, 3) rehabilitation of aquatic habitat using static features versus allowing the potential for dynamic adjustments in channel form and habitat structure. It is extremely important that the research be pragmatic, and focus on developing pilot/demonstration studies that will lead to design guidance that municipalities can use to design new systems, or improve existing systems, that will protect not only the safety and welfare of the citizenry that it serves, but also the aquatic ecosystems in the streams that receive the wet weather discharges from these urbanized sites.
Habits of a Positive MindThe attainment of the pinnacle of serenity and happiness can only be achieved through the path of optimism and positivity. Without feeling optimistic about various aspects of life you cannot hope to lead a happy and contented life. People wait all their lives for happiness to happen to them. We don't comprehend that happiness is not a gift that is sent to us every Christmas by Santa Claus. It is not a tangible thing but a state of mind. We "choose" to be happy and this cannot be done unless we develop a positive attitude. What Benefits will you Get From this Book?This eBook is meant to help its readers discover methods to adopt an optimistic outlook on life which are: 1. Develop new positive habits 2. Why positive perceptions are mandatory in life 3. Significance of laughter and sense of humor 4. Ways to develop optimistic approach towards life 5. Discarding negative thoughts from your mind 6. Liberating your soul from the shackles of negativity and apprehensions 7. Reasons why you should surround yourself with positive people 8. Cherishing every joyful moment regardless of it's magnitude. 9. Maintaining your optimism
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