Plant parasitic nematodes are a main pest to crops. For ex am pie, the root-knot nematodes belonging to the genus Meloidogyne are worldwide in their distribution and attack almost every type of crop, causing considerable losses of yield and affecting quality of produce. The cyst nematodes within the genera Globodera and Heterodera constitute a major group of plant pathogens in many countries throughout the world, suppressing yields of potato, sugar beet, soybean and cereals. Several nematodes such as longidorids and trichodorids are implicated in the transmission of numerous plant viruses. Many others cause constraints to agricultural production either locally or on large areas. However, despite their economic importance (they account for worldwide crop reduction in excess of 10%), plant parasitic nematodes are still poorly understood, because most of them are obligate parasites of roots. Environmental concerns over the agricultural use of pesticides demand the development of alternative measures to control them. To achieve environmentally sound control, knowledge of the basic biology of nematodes must be expanded. Important research areas include understanding the molecular bases for pathogenicity, the molecular mechanisms of the host- parasite interactions and the genetic bases for population fluctuations. The workshop has, for the first time, brought together an international group of researchers using molecular approaches to study plant parasitic nematodes and their host responses.
Successful reproduction is the basis not only for the stability of the species in their natural habitat but also for productivity of our crop plants. Therefore, knowledge on reproductive ecology of wild and cultivated plants is important for effective management of our dwindling biodiversity and for the sustainability and improvement of the yield in crop species. Conservation and management of our plant diversity is going to be a major challenge in the coming decades, particularly in the tropical countries which are rich in biodiversity. Reproductive failure is the main driver for pushing a large number of tropical species to vulnerable category. Available data on reproductive ecology on tropical species is very limited and there is an urgent need to initiate research on these lines. A major limitation for the beginners to take up research is the absence of simple concise work manuals that provide step-wise procedures to study all aspects of reproductive ecology.
The Manual fills this void. Over 60 protocols described in the manual cover the whole spectrum of reproductive ecology - study sites and species, phenology, floral morphology and sexuality, pollen and pistil biology, pollination ecology, breeding system, seed biology, seed dispersal and seedling recruitment. Each chapter gives a concise conceptual account of the topic before describing the protocols. The Manual caters to researchers, teachers and students who are interested in any aspect of reproductive ecology of flowering plants -- botanists, ecologists, agri-horticulturists, foresters, entomologists, plant breeders and conservation biologists.
This book is about the ways in which two western European countries attempt to cope with the changing demands of urban development. In particular, it is con- cerned with the differences in approach of the Dutch and English planning systems and the contrasting ways in which they are used to guide, promote and control development. The book results from a research study in which members of staff at Delft of Technology and Oxford Polytechnic compared local planning and University development in the Netherlands and England. The aim was to investigate ways in which development was promoted and controlled under different planning systems. The research was subsequently developed along two converging lines. One was an examination of over twenty case studies of plan making and the con- trol of development in the cities of Leiden and Oxford. The other was a study of the two planning systems and the ways in which the respective approaches to planning were seen to relate closely to the contrasting legal and administrative systems and differences in development practice. The convergence of the two lines of enquiry produced a tension between empirical observations and theoretical supposition which led to a fruitful development of ideas about the nature of the two planning systems and how they promote and control develop- ment.
You can be the match that ignites a great Bible discussion! You only need a few basic skills. This guidebook by Jack Kuhatschek and Cindy Bunch (both veteran discussion leaders and experienced Bible study creators) will show you
This special supplement to the major loose-leaf work. Irish Planning Law and Practice lays out a consolidated version of the 2000 Act, incorporating all of the amendments up to September 2010. Included are detailed notes informing the reader of the origin of the changes, and the relevant commencement provisions. Consolidated and Annotated Planning and Development Acts 2000-2010 was prepared by the Environmental and Planning Law Unit of A&L Goodbody, Solcitors. We hope it provides assistance to all planning law practitioners, allowing for a comprehensive and user-friendly reference point to the 2000 Act. This supplement is published as Issue 29 of Irish Planning Law and Practice
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